Maratha

Maratha

Shivaji (1627 – 1680)

  • Born at Shivner (Father  →  Shahji Bhosale,  Mother  →  Jija Bai)
  • Inherited Jagir of Poona from his father in 1637
  • Continuous fight with Aurangzeb
  • Shaishta khan captured Poona but Shivaji reclaimed it
  • Aurangzeb sent Raja jai Singh of Amber, who besieged Purander fort →  Treaty of Purander, 1665
  • Treaty of Purander →  Shivaji surrendered 23 / 35 forts to Mughals & said to be loyal to Mughal empire
  • In 1674, Shivaji recaptured all his lost territory & crowned himself at Raigarh assuming the title of Chhtrapati

 

Administration

  • King was pivot at the center, led by COM’s called “Astapradhan”

 

  • Peshwa                                    →  Finance & General administrator (Later became PM)
  • Amatya                                    →  Accountant General
  • Sar – i – Naubat / Senapati    → Military commander
  • Waqnavis                                →  Intelligence & Household affairs
  • Sachiv                                     → Correspondence
  • Sumanta                                 →  Master of ceremonies
  • Nyayadhish                            → Justice Chief
  • Pandit Rao                             → Charities & Religious admin

 

  • Appointed his own revenue official “Karkuns” diminishing the power of existing Deshmukhs & Kulkarnis

Maratha Empire 1795

 Taxes
  • From neighboring kingdoms of Mughals & Deccan
  • Chauth           →  1 / 4  of the land revenue to Marathas (for not attacking them & keeping safe)
  • Deshmukhis  →  levy of 1/10  on lands Marathas claimed hereditary rights (Maratha land)

 


Peshwas (1713 – 1818)

  • Balaji Vishvanath  →  Under Maratha ruler Shahu
  • Baji Rao                →  Under Maratha ruler Shahu
  • Balaji Baji Rao     →  Became king & ruler of Marathas (Shahu Died)

 

Agreement with Mughals

  • Balaji Bajirao came into agreement with Mughals in 1752
  • Protection of Mughals in exchange of revenue (Chauth) from Northern provinces

 

3rd Battle of Panipat

  • Ahmed shah Abdali vs Balaji Bajirao
  • When Ahmed shah Abdali invaded India, Marathas fought for Mughals
  • Balaji Bajirao got defeated & died in 3rd battle of Panipat

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